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Meltzer--"System 0-&TNPP & vZEquation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00w[Equation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00x\Equation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00b>Equation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00IEquation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00tNEquation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00 REquation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00cEquation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00rEquation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00s½Equation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00týEquation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00 vŽEquation Equation.COEE206CorelEquation! 2.0 Equation/0DTimes New Roman|dv0|( 0$DArialNew Roman|dv0|( 0$" DSymbolew Roman|dv0|( 0$a. @n?" dd@ @@``7x74p5ACI<<A<B >>?=?BE>=wg]lmllollllijiihmlabi22 >%+mmmmomm4%88:H8888 #$$$ ##### ,,****)*###llllll444##**88%'%72&&%AG##*#####>4 ch`ml4hhhhhh%%&&24lllllmmmmlF D4BF !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~ !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~IRoot EntrydO)CPictures5Current UserZPSummaryInformation(PowerPoint Document(DocumentSummaryInformation80h !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ADEFGHJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~ation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00w[Equation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00x\Equation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00b>Equation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00IEquation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00tNEquation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00 REquation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00cEquation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00rEquation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00s½Equation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00týEquation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00 vŽEquation Equation.COEE206CorelEquation! 2.0 Equation/0DTimes New Roman|dv0|( 0DArialNew Roman|dv0|( 0" DSymbolew Roman|dv0|( 0a. @n?" dd@ @@``7x74p>DCI<<A<B >>?=?BE>=wg]lmllollllijiihmlabi22 >%+mmmmomm4%88:H8888 #$$$ ##### ,,****)*###llllll444##**88%'%72&&%AG##*#####>4 ch`ml4hhhhhh%%&&24lllllmmmmlF D4BF ILKM4BF -+GLKM4BF k c@`E ###$$$ ####### ########%t c??`DDD) )BA8^ ###26:973,+*$ !# %& '( ;<=>?@456-./01 " $2$d 07uYUv\2$S6-ԕhTb$ÅˆtDf7wt! 2$z!jT%2$ڰnqeU2>'2$Muv&!1p)2$79q= jk+2$}lB9-2$U-iRm/2$Xyk'nfhRd12$Ji,x2m'{30AA`f33@FlO ʚ;Sk8ʚ;g4BdBdv0ppp@<4dddd` 0,<4dddd` 0,<4BdBd` 0,R80___PPT10 ?%.IDevelopment of Student Reasoning in an Upper-Level Thermal Physics Course JI David E. Meltzer and Warren M. Christensen Department of Physics and Astronomy Iowa State University Ames, Iowa Supported in part by NSF DUE #9981140 and PHY-#0406724 z+$`@7 2 (+E7! BackgroundPrevious research on learning of thermal physics: algebra-based introductory physics (Loverude, Kautz, and Heron, 2002) sophomore-level thermal physics (Loverude, Kautz, and Heron, 2002) calculus-based introductory physics (Meltzer, 2004) This project: research and curriculum development for upper-level (junior-senior) thermal physics course in collaboration with John Thompson, University of Maine3PPP4P0Z<[PZ9Z3## %##PfY"Course and StudentsqTopics: Approximately equal balance between classical macroscopic thermodynamics, and statistical thermodynamics (Texts: Sears and Salinger; Schroeder) Students enrolled (Ninitial = 20): all but three were physics majors or physics/engineering double majors all but one were juniors or above all had studied thermodynamics one dropped out, two more stopped attending Z$0P2PP,PP ,U*Course and StudentsqTopics: Approximately equal balance between classical macroscopic thermodynamics, and statistical thermodynamics (Texts: Sears and Salinger; Schroeder) Students enrolled (Ninitial = 20): all but three were physics majors or physics/engineering double majors all but one were juniors or above all had studied thermodynamics one dropped out, two more stopped attending Z$0P2PP,PP ,V)Course and StudentsqTopics: Approximately equal balance between classical macroscopic thermodynamics, and statistical thermodynamics (Texts: Sears and Salinger; Schroeder) Students enrolled (Ninitial = 20): all but three were physics majors or physics/engineering double majors all but one were juniors or above all had studied thermodynamics one dropped out, two more stopped attending Z$0P2PP,PP,W(Course and StudentsqTopics: Approximately equal balance between classical macroscopic thermodynamics, and statistical thermodynamics (Texts: Sears and Salinger; Schroeder) Students enrolled (Ninitial = 20): all but three were physics majors or physics/engineering double majors all but one were juniors or above all had studied thermodynamics one dropped out, two more stopped attending Z$0P2PP,PPi,X'Course and StudentsqTopics: Approximately equal balance between classical macroscopic thermodynamics, and statistical thermodynamics (Texts: Sears and Salinger; Schroeder) Students enrolled (Ninitial = 20): all but three were physics majors or physics/engineering double majors all but one were juniors or above all had studied thermodynamics one dropped out, two more stopped attending Z$0P2PP,PP,Y&Course and StudentsqTopics: Approximately equal balance between classical macroscopic thermodynamics, and statistical thermodynamics (Texts: Sears and Salinger; Schroeder) Students enrolled (Ninitial = 20): all but three were physics majors or physics/engineering double majors all but one were juniors or above all had studied thermodynamics one dropped out, two more stopped attending Z$0P2PP,PP,Z$Course and StudentsqTopics: Approximately equal balance between classical macroscopic thermodynamics, and statistical thermodynamics (Texts: Sears and Salinger; Schroeder) Students enrolled (Ninitial = 20): all but three were physics majors or physics/engineering double majors all but one were juniors or above all had studied thermodynamics one dropped out, two more stopped attending Z$0P2PP,PP,1Methodological IssuesSmall class sizes imply large year-to-year fluctuations. Broad range of preparation and abilities represented among students: (roughly 1/3, 1/3, 1/3, high, medium, low ) very hard to generalize results across sub-groups Which students are present or absent for a given diagnostic can significantly influence results.j9PZ(EZcZapZ2(9Ec`2>Performance Comparison: Upper-level vs. Introductory Students?? MDiagnostic questions given to students in introductory calculus-based course after instruction was complete: 1999-2001: 653 students responded to written questions 2002: 32 self-selected, high-performing students participated in one-on-one interviews Written pre-test questions given to Thermal Physics students on first day of classLmS 2MSklmno#3Responses to Diagnostic Question #1 (Work question)4$33Responses to Diagnostic Question #1 (Work question)4$\-3Responses to Diagnostic Question #1 (Work question)4$],3Responses to Diagnostic Question #1 (Work question)4$[+3Responses to Diagnostic Question #1 (Work question)4$4 3Responses to Diagnostic Question #1 (Work question)4$&0'($3Responses to Diagnostic Question #2 (Heat question)4$^23Responses to Diagnostic Question #2 (Heat question)4$_13Responses to Diagnostic Question #2 (Heat question)4$`03Responses to Diagnostic Question #2 (Heat question)4$a/3Responses to Diagnostic Question #2 (Heat question)4$b.3Responses to Diagnostic Question #2 (Heat question)4$5 Other ComparisonsPerformance of upper-level students on written pretest was not significantly different from interview sample (high-performing introductory students) on post-instruction questions related to: Cyclic processes Isothermal processes Thermal reservoirs <9;6"Heat Engines and Second-Law Issues## After extensive study and review of first law of thermodynamics, cyclic processes, Carnot heat engines, efficiencies, etc., students were given pretest regarding various possible (or impossible) versions of two-temperature heat engines.S7d4e38P Q!:9 i8S#T";l9<?Heat Engines: Post-InstructionuFollowing extensive instruction on second-law and implications regarding heat engines, graded quiz given as post-testAf7g6h5JFGu<HCKLMOSummaryODifficulties with fundamental concepts found among introductory physics students persist for many students beginning upper-level thermal physics course. Intensive study incorporating active-learning methods yields only slow progress for many students. Large variations in performance among different students persist throughout course."PZ2TZPP ||( | | Sġ <$0 | SšPp<$0 H |0h ? ̙33___PPT10x.1M+jRD' Qt= @B D' = @BA?%,( <+O%,( <+Da' =%(%(D' =%(D' =A@BBBB0B%(D' =1:Bvisible*o3>+B#style.visibility<*|%(DA' =%(D' =%(D' =A@BBBB0B%(D' =1:Bvisible*o3>+B#style.visibility<*|8%(DA' =%(D' =%(D' =A@BBBB0B%(D' =1:Bvisible*o3>+B#style.visibility<*|8|%(DA' =%(D' =%(D' =A@BBBB0B%(D' =1:Bvisible*o3>+B#style.visibility<*||%(DA' =%(D' =%(D' =A@BBBB0B%(D' =1:Bvisible*o3>+B#style.visibility<*|%(DA' =%(D' =%(D' =A@BBBB0B%(D' =1:Bvisible*o3>+B#style.visibility<*|@%(+p+0+|0 ++0+|0 +ro1 Kvtq( !"#$%&'()*+,-./123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXY[Oh+'0hp PowerPoint PresentationoweoweDavid E. Meltzertat659Microsoft PowerPointon@` aK@@G Ct AK&v &&#TNPP$2OMi8 & TNPP &&TNPPv --- !v---&A]&j}w@ }ww0- &.]H& --e-- @"Arialw@ }ww0- .B2 :'Development of Student Reasoning in an # . .2 ]Upper. . 2 - . .12 Level Thermal Physics Course#.--5MB-- @"Arialw@- }ww0- .F2 uK*David E. Meltzer and Warren M. Christensen & .@"Arialw@ }ww0- .<2 #Department of Physics and Astronomy . .'2 :Iowa State University . .2 s Ames, Iowa.@"Arialw@- }ww0- .K2 f-Supported in part by NSF DUE #9981140 and PHY . . 2 -. .2 #0406724 .--"System 0-&TNPP & ILKM4BF -+GLKM4BF k c@`E ###$$$ ####### ########%t c??`DDD) )BA8^ ###26:973,+*$ # %& '( ;<=>?@456-./01 " $2$d 07uYUv\2$S6-ԕhTb$ÅˆtDf7wt! 2$z!jT%2$ڰnqeU2>'2$Muv&!1p)2$79q= jk+2$}lB9-2$U-iRm/2$Xyk'nfhRd12$Ji,x2m'{30AA`f33@FlO ʚ;Sk8ʚ;g4BdBdv0ppp@<4dddd` 0,<4dddd` 0,<4BdBd` 0,R80___PPT10 ?%b.IDevelopment of Student Reasoning in an Upper-Level Thermal Physics Course JI David E. Meltzer and Warren M. Christensen Department of Physics and Astronomy Iowa State University Ames, Iowa Supported in part by NSF DUE #9981140 and PHY-#0406724 z+$`@7 2 (+E7! BackgroundPrevious research on learning of thermal physics: algebra-based introductory physics (Loverude, Kautz, and Heron, 2002) sophomore-level thermal physics (Loverude, Kautz, and Heron, 2002) calculus-based introductory physics (Meltzer, 2004) This project: research and curriculum development for upper-level (junior-senior) thermal physics course in collaboration with John Thompson, University of Maine3PPP4P0Z<[PZ9Z3## %##PfY"Course and StudentsqTopics: Approximately equal balance between classical macroscopic thermodynamics, and statistical thermodynamics (Texts: Sears and Salinger; Schroeder) Students enrolled (Ninitial = 20): all but three were physics majors or physics/engineering double majors all but one were juniors or above all had studied thermodynamics one dropped out, two more stopped attending Z$0P2PP,PP ,U*Course and StudentsqTopics: Approximately equal balance between classical macroscopic thermodynamics, and statistical thermodynamics (Texts: Sears and Salinger; Schroeder) Students enrolled (Ninitial = 20): all but three were physics majors or physics/engineering double majors all but one were juniors or above all had studied thermodynamics one dropped out, two more stopped attending Z$0P2PP,PP ,V)Course and StudentsqTopics: Approximately equal balance between classical macroscopic thermodynamics, and statistical thermodynamics (Texts: Sears and Salinger; Schroeder) Students enrolled (Ninitial = 20): all but three were physics majors or physics/engineering double majors all but one were juniors or above all had studied thermodynamics one dropped out, two more stopped attending Z$0P2PP,PP,W(Course and StudentsqTopics: Approximately equal balance between classical macroscopic thermodynamics, and statistical thermodynamics (Texts: Sears and Salinger; Schroeder) Students enrolled (Ninitial = 20): all but three were physics majors or physics/engineering double majors all but one were juniors or above all had studied thermodynamics one dropped out, two more stopped attending Z$0P2PP,PPi,X'Course and StudentsqTopics: Approximately equal balance between classical macroscopic thermodynamics, and statistical thermodynamics (Texts: Sears and Salinger; Schroeder) Students enrolled (Ninitial = 20): all but three were physics majors or physics/engineering double majors all but one were juniors or above all had studied thermodynamics one dropped out, two more stopped attending Z$0P2PP,PP,Y&Course and StudentsqTopics: Approximately equal balance between classical macroscopic thermodynamics, and statistical thermodynamics (Texts: Sears and Salinger; Schroeder) Students enrolled (Ninitial = 20): all but three were physics majors or physics/engineering double majors all but one were juniors or above all had studied thermodynamics one dropped out, two more stopped attending Z$0P2PP,PP,Z$Course and StudentsqTopics: Approximately equal balance between classical macroscopic thermodynamics, and statistical thermodynamics (Texts: Sears and Salinger; Schroeder) Students enrolled (Ninitial = 20): all but three were physics majors or physics/engineering double majors all but one were juniors or above all had studied thermodynamics one dropped out, two more stopped attending Z$0P2PP,PP,1Methodological IssuesSmall class sizes imply large year-to-year fluctuations. Broad range of preparation and abilities represented among students: (roughly 1/3, 1/3, 1/3, high, medium, low ) very hard to generalize results across sub-groups Which students are present or absent for a given diagnostic can significantly influence results.j9PZ(EZcZapZ2(9Ec`2>Performance Comparison: Upper-level vs. Introductory Students?? MDiagnostic questions given to students in introductory calculus-based course after instruction was complete: 1999-2001: 653 students responded to written questions 2002: 32 self-selected, high-performing students participated in one-on-one interviews Written pre-test questions given to Thermal Physics students on first day of classLmS 2MSklmno#3Responses to Diagnostic Question #1 (Work question)4$33Responses to Diagnostic Question #1 (Work question)4$\-3Responses to Diagnostic Question #1 (Work question)4$],3Responses to Diagnostic Question #1 (Work question)4$[+3Responses to Diagnostic Question #1 (Work question)4$4 3Responses to Diagnostic Question #1 (Work question)4$&0'($3Responses to Diagnostic Question #2 (Heat question)4$^23Responses to Diagnostic Question #2 (Heat question)4$_13Responses to Diagnostic Question #2 (Heat question)4$`03Responses to Diagnostic Question #2 (Heat question)4$a/3Responses to Diagnostic Question #2 (Heat question)4$b.3Responses to Diagnostic Question #2 (Heat question)4$5 Other ComparisonsPerformance of upper-level students on written pretest was not significantly different from interview sample (high-performing introductory students) on post-instruction questions related to: Cyclic processes Isothermal processes Thermal reservoirs <9;6"Heat Engines and Second-Law Issues## After extensive study and review of first law of thermodynamics, cyclic processes, Carnot heat engines, efficiencies, etc., students were given pretest regarding various possible (or impossible) versions of two-temperature heat engines.S7d4e38P :9 i8S#T";l9<?Heat Engines: Post-InstructionuFollowing extensive instruction on second-law and implications regarding heat engines, graded quiz given as post-testAf7h5JFu<HCKLMOSummaryODifficulties with fundamental concepts found among introductory physics students persist for many students beginning upper-level thermal physics course. Intensive study incorporating active-learning methods yields only slow progress for many students. Large variations in performance among different students persist throughout course."PZ2TZPP! ( l " p2 ,$@0 3^x fZ SThigh2 3^ h r" lTlow2 62 D 0 S^` cWNET = 60 J< 62 f S$^ G Q = 100 J" Sd^ n FQ = 40 J" S^ DSystem" <2 # < 62 6 b D H^8c"`,$D0 heat transfer of 100 J to the system at Thigh heat transfer of 40 J away from the system at Tlow net work of 60 J done by the system on its surroundings. !]: c$Ab??@x8b$D0 <H^pB,$0 K(violation of second law) B_8c"` ,$D0 [0% correct (N = 15), 68c"` P` ,$@0# B_8c"``8j,$D0 o5Consistent with results reported by M. Cochran (2002)6 633 <_@@,` ,$0 g(diagram not given)8 H 0h ? ̙33SK___PPT10+.a+ D' = @B D' = @BA?%,( <+O%,( <+Da' =%(%(D' =%(D' =A@BBBB0B%(D' =1:Bvisible*o3>+B#style.visibility<*%(D' =%(Du' =%(D' =4@BBBB%(D' =1:Bvisible*o3>+B#style.visibility<*%(D' =A@BBBB0B%(D' =1:Bvisible*o3>+B#style.visibility<*%(D' =%(Dh' =%(D' =4@BBBB%(D' =1:Bvisible*o3>+B#style.visibility<*%(D' =4@BBBB%(D' =1:Bvisible*o3>+B#style.visibility<*%(DA' =%(D' =%(D' =A@BBBB0B%(D' =1:Bvisible*o3>+B#style.visibility<*%(DA' =%(D' =%(D' =A@BBBB0B%(D' =1:Bvisible*o3>+B#style.visibility<*%(DA' =%(D' =%(D' =A@BBBB0B%(D' =1:Bvisible*o3>+B#style.visibility<*%(++0+0 ++0+0 ++0+0 ++0+0 ++0+0 +r< evtq( vZEquation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00w[Equation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00x\Equation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00b>Equation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00IEquation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00tNEquation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00 REquation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00cEquation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00rEquation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00s½Equation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00týEquation Equation.30,Microsoft Equation 3.00 vŽEquation Equation.COEE206CorelEquation! 2.0 Equation/0DTimes New Roman|dv0|( 0$DArialNew Roman|dv0|( 0$" DSymbolew Roman|dv0|( 0$a. @n?" dd@ @@``7x74p0@CI<<A<B >>?=?BE>=wg]lmllollllijiihmlabi22 >%+mmmmomm4%88:H8888 #$$$ ##### ,,****)*###llllll444##**88%'%72&&%AG##*#####>4 ch`ml4hhhhhh%%&&24lllllmmmmlF D4BF ILKM4BF -+GLKM4BF k c@`E ###$$$ ####### ########%t c??`DDD) )BA8^ ###26:973,+*$ # % '( ;<=>?@456-./01 " $2$d 07uYUv\2$S6-ԕhTb$ÅˆtDf7wt! 2$z!jT%2$ڰnqeU2>'2$Muv&!1p)2$79q= jk+2$}lB9-2$U-iRm/2$Xyk'nfhRd12$Ji,x2m'{30AA`f33@FlO ʚ;Sk8ʚ;g4BdBdv0ppp@<4dddd` 0,<4dddd` 0,<4BdBd` 0,R80___PPT10 ?%F.IDevelopment of Student Reasoning in an Upper-Level Thermal Physics Course JI David E. Meltzer and Warren M. Christensen Department of Physics and Astronomy Iowa State University Ames, Iowa Supported in part by NSF DUE #9981140 and PHY-#0406724 z+$`@7 2 (+E7! BackgroundPrevious research on learning of thermal physics: algebra-based introductory physics (Loverude, Kautz, and Heron, 2002) sophomore-level thermal physics (Loverude, Kautz, and Heron, 2002) calculus-based introductory physics (Meltzer, 2004) This project: research and curriculum development for upper-level (junior-senior) thermal physics course in collaboration with John Thompson, University of Maine3PPP4P0Z<[PZ9Z3## %##PfY"Course and StudentsqTopics: Approximately equal balance between classical macroscopic thermodynamics, and statistical thermodynamics (Texts: Sears and Salinger; Schroeder) Students enrolled (Ninitial = 20): all but three were physics majors or physics/engineering double majors all but one were juniors or above all had studied thermodynamics one dropped out, two more stopped attending Z$0P2PP,PP ,U*Course and StudentsqTopics: Approximately equal balance between classical macroscopic thermodynamics, and statistical thermodynamics (Texts: Sears and Salinger; Schroeder) Students enrolled (Ninitial = 20): all but three were physics majors or physics/engineering double majors all but one were juniors or above all had studied thermodynamics one dropped out, two more stopped attending Z$0P2PP,PP ,V)Course and StudentsqTopics: Approximately equal balance between classical macroscopic thermodynamics, and statistical thermodynamics (Texts: Sears and Salinger; Schroeder) Students enrolled (Ninitial = 20): all but three were physics majors or physics/engineering double majors all but one were juniors or above all had studied thermodynamics one dropped out, two more stopped attending Z$0P2PP,PP,W(Course and StudentsqTopics: Approximately equal balance between classical macroscopic thermodynamics, and statistical thermodynamics (Texts: Sears and Salinger; Schroeder) Students enrolled (Ninitial = 20): all but three were physics majors or physics/engineering double majors all but one were juniors or above all had studied thermodynamics one dropped out, two more stopped attending Z$0P2PP,PPi,X'Course and StudentsqTopics: Approximately equal balance between classical macroscopic thermodynamics, and statistical thermodynamics (Texts: Sears and Salinger; Schroeder) Students enrolled (Ninitial = 20): all but three were physics majors or physics/engineering double majors all but one were juniors or above all had studied thermodynamics one dropped out, two more stopped attending Z$0P2PP,PP,Y&Course and StudentsqTopics: Approximately equal balance between classical macroscopic thermodynamics, and statistical thermodynamics (Texts: Sears and Salinger; Schroeder) Students enrolled (Ninitial = 20): all but three were physics majors or physics/engineering double majors all but one were juniors or above all had studied thermodynamics one dropped out, two more stopped attending Z$0P2PP,PP,Z$Course and StudentsqTopics: Approximately equal balance between classical macroscopic thermodynamics, and statistical thermodynamics (Texts: Sears and Salinger; Schroeder) Students enrolled (Ninitial = 20): all but three were physics majors or physics/engineering double majors all but one were juniors or above all had studied thermodynamics one dropped out, two more stopped attending Z$0P2PP,PP,1Methodological IssuesSmall class sizes imply large year-to-year fluctuations. Broad range of preparation and abilities represented among students: (roughly 1/3, 1/3, 1/3, high, medium, low ) very hard to generalize results across sub-groups Which students are present or absent for a given diagnostic can significantly influence results.j9PZ(EZcZapZ2(9Ec`2>Performance Comparison: Upper-level vs. Introductory Students?? MDiagnostic questions given to students in introductory calculus-based course after instruction was complete: 1999-2001: 653 students responded to written questions 2002: 32 self-selected, high-performing students participated in one-on-one interviews Written pre-test questions given to Thermal Physics students on first day of classLmS 2MSklmno#3Responses to Diagnostic Question #1 (Work question)4$33Responses to Diagnostic Question #1 (Work question)4$\-3Responses to Diagnostic Question #1 (Work question)4$],3Responses to Diagnostic Question #1 (Work question)4$[+3Responses to Diagnostic Question #1 (Work question)4$4 3Responses to Diagnostic Question #1 (Work question)4$&0'($3Responses to Diagnostic Question #2 (Heat question)4$^23Responses to Diagnostic Question #2 (Heat question)4$_13Responses to Diagnostic Question #2 (Heat question)4$`03Responses to Diagnostic Question #2 (Heat question)4$a/3Responses to Diagnostic Question #2 (Heat question)4$b.3Responses to Diagnostic Question #2 (Heat question)4$5 Other ComparisonsPerformance of upper-level students on written pretest was not significantly different from interview sample (high-performing introductory students) on post-instruction questions related to: Cyclic processes Isothermal processes Thermal reservoirs <9;6"Heat Engines and Second-Law Issues## After extensive study and review of first law of thermodynamics, cyclic processes, Carnot heat engines, efficiencies, etc., students were given pretest regarding various possible (or impossible) versions of two-temperature heat engines.S7d4e38P :9 i8S#T";l9<?Heat Engines: Post-InstructionuFollowing extensive instruction on second-law and implications regarding heat engines, graded quiz given as post-testAf7h5JFu<HCKMOSummaryODifficulties with fundamental concepts found among introductory physics students persist for many students beginning upper-level thermal physics course. Intensive study incorporating active-learning methods yields only slow progress for many students. Large variations in performance among different students persist throughout course."PZ2TZPPr }hvt